The hottest low-voltage electrical appliance indus

2022-10-20
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It is difficult to develop, promote and do a good job in the low-voltage electrical industry

China's electrical industry started from the introduction of Soviet products in the first Five-Year Plan (1953 ~ 1958), and the introduced products cover the entire electrical field. The independent development of low-voltage electrical products began in the early 1960 with the imitation of Soviet products. Led by the Shanghai Institute of electrical science, the centralized Institute, the joint production plant carried out the unified national design. The products involved include low-voltage circuit breakers (automatic switches), AC contactors, DC contactors, electromagnetic starters, thermal relays, control relays, etc., which are almost all included in the 13 categories of low-voltage electrical products. These products include DW10, dz10, CJ10, etc. the 1960s is the era of 10 series of low-voltage electrical appliances. Since 1970, the second round of unified design has been launched, with the birth of 20 series, such as cj20, DW15, DZ20, etc

from 1980 to 1990, it entered the period of introducing foreign products. In 1980, Shanghai Renmin electric appliance factory signed an agreement with BBC Corporation of Germany to introduce B-series AC contactors, which was the first introduction project of low-voltage electrical appliances. The products introduced later included AC contactors, electromagnetic starters, low-voltage circuit breakers, vacuum switches, low-voltage fuses, cement price continuous decline master appliances, transfer switches, etc. a total of 34 enterprises introduced 47 series and more than 600 varieties from Germany, the United States, France, Japan, etc. However, it takes a long time to digest and absorb the imported technology. For example, it took 9 years for B series products from introduction to batch supply, which is longer than the time for developing a new product

from 1991 to 2000, that is, during the eighth and ninth five year plans, the former Ministry of machinery organized national key enterprise technology development projects, including low-voltage electrical appliances. During the Eighth Five Year Plan period, there are: intelligent low-voltage circuit breakers, modular terminal appliances, electronic vacuum combiners, control and protection self matching appliances, etc. During the Ninth Five Year Plan period, the development of intelligent low-voltage electrical appliances and intelligent low-voltage power distribution and electronic control devices was approved as a project, led by Shanghai Institute of electrical science and Tianjin Institute of electrical transmission design and research, which realized the joint development of electrical components and complete sets of devices, paving the way for the introduction of electrical components and complete sets of devices to the market. Facts have proved that this practice has accelerated the marketization process of new components and new complete sets of devices. The research and development of this project has begun the intelligent era of China's independent research and development of low-voltage electrical appliances and low-voltage complete sets of devices

it can be seen that the development of domestic low-voltage electrical appliance industry is indeed very early, but why has China's low-voltage electrical appliance industry been developing slowly over the past 50 years? Nor has it created a national brand. On these issues, some experts in the industry have been interviewed to test the successful production of blood vessels with PET materials and some people outside the industry who care about the low-voltage electrical appliance industry

the low-voltage electrical appliance industry lacks the sense of innovation

now we all know the problems existing in the industry, such as low scientific and technological content, backward technology, disorderly competition, etc. These are all superficial problems of the industry. There are two substantive problems existing in the industry: one is that some associations and leaders in the industry play a small leading role; the other is that the industry is not combined with some national policies, Failed to achieve a mutually reinforcing vision. If these two problems are not solved well, it is difficult for low-voltage electrical appliances to have great development. An unnamed expert in the low-voltage electrical appliance industry said

the problem in the industry now is that enterprises invest too little in developing products, and now the economic benefits are not good, and the profits are low. In the past, the profits of the electrical industry were 20% - 30%, which is a lot, but now it may not even be 10%, so now the industry can only maintain a livelihood, not invest. In the past, the electrical industry used to spend 3% as investment to develop new things, but now there is No, Now we all know that new technology is a good thing, but we can't develop it. Another unnamed old industry expert said

as a developer, my first thought is to save money. Beyond the scope of saving money, second, I want to be safe, because I saved money, but the building I developed is on fire every day through calculation, and I can't afford this. So when I choose materials, I will choose products that save money and ensure life. Of course, life is relative. For example, when I go to purchase, the same two low-voltage complete cabinets, One is guaranteed for 30 years, and the other is guaranteed for 10 years. If you choose, you must choose the one for 30 years, but if you want me to choose, I must choose the one for 10 years. As a developer, I still care about your affairs after 10 years? I sold the house to you. The equipment hasn't broken down for ten years, and it broke down in the eleventh year. Does it have anything to do with me, the developer? A real estate developer said

domestic and older brands, such as Shendi, Beidi, Shanghai People's electric appliance, etc., are among the first batch of low-voltage manufacturers in China. However, later, some factories closed down, but some factories counterattacked. Whether it was reform and opening up or any other chance coincidence, in general, many small enterprises in the south just got up. Take a simple example: How did those factories in Wenzhou make a fortune? An enterprise in Wenzhou made its fortune by ABB, Schneider, Siemens and other foreign-funded enterprises. A foreign-funded enterprise gave a set of molds to an enterprise in Wenzhou to make the shell of the air switch, and then made some accessories inside, and then sent them to the foreign-funded enterprise to affix the label of the foreign-funded enterprise. The task is over. How does an enterprise in Wenzhou do it? For example, the mold can be pressed 20000 times, but the foreign standard is the top 10000, because the mold is worn in the production process. After 10000 times, the accuracy of the machine is not enough and does not meet the foreign standard. An enterprise in Wenzhou pressed 20000 sets, of which the first 10000 sets of air opening shells were given to these foreign-funded enterprises, and the remaining 10000 sets were assembled and produced by themselves, and then pasted with the name of their own enterprise. Take it to the market to sell, or directly pretend to be the original 10000 sets, so for a period of time, fake abb, Schneider and Siemens are popular in this market. When you go to buy this thing, the salesperson will ask you, are you serious or fake? Because the real and fake prices are very different. This was the situation of China's low-voltage industry at that time. A supervisor of the information industry academy said in an interview with this magazine

with the continuous development of market economy, the pattern of joint design of new products led by the Research Institute and industry wide production has been completely broken. What follows is the independent research and development of differentiated new products by enterprises. This has resulted in a substantial increase in the trial production workload and trial production costs of the manufacturers of internal and external accessories of low-voltage appliances and major parts, while the production batch of each accessory or part is reduced, making it difficult to form a production scale and generate profits. The low enthusiasm of accessory manufacturers also brings difficulties to the whole machine factory in developing new products. The boss of a low-voltage electrical appliance factory admitted. The technical structure is very unreasonable, and the level of technical equipment in major industries is low. According to statistics, among the main technical equipment of enterprises, only one third of them have advanced technical and economic performance. Only about 18% of the leading products of backbone enterprises have reached the international technical level in the 1990s

product imitation, serious homogenization competition

in the interview, I learned that: under the background of the continuous development of new technologies and new products of low-voltage electrical appliances, as well as the development of intelligent electricity and the increasing attention to safe power consumption, if China's low-voltage electrical appliances industry does not increase investment in scientific research and new product research and development, does not increase basic generic technology research, and rapidly improve the independent innovation ability of enterprises, it will hinder the sustainable development of China's low-voltage electrical appliances industry, And lose market competitiveness

there are many accidents of low-voltage switchgear due to the unqualified flame retardance of insulating materials in China, and the insulation performance of parts made of insulating materials is poor. It is mainly manifested in: the insulation treatment is not carried out according to the industrial requirements, which affects the insulation performance, or the insulation performance is significantly reduced due to the use in wet conditions. The sealing strip used for waterproof, dustproof and improving the protection grade cannot be used for a long time because it is easy to age. Generally, it will age and deform within one to two years, and cannot achieve the purpose of long-term waterproof and dustproof. As the main conductor of low-voltage switchgear, the copper bar often leads to low current carrying capacity and heating due to processing capacity, copper content and other reasons, which reduces the actual current carrying capacity of the device and cannot meet the design requirements

industry experts also pointed out that China's low-voltage switchgear industry has some problems, such as poor independent development ability of enterprises, small gap in product quality, but no famous brand products, uneven level and quality of originals, etc. Specifically, the independent development ability of enterprises is poor, and there are many manufacturers, but there are few large-scale enterprises. The vast majority of manufacturers have weak technical strength and do not have the independent development ability of products. They are basically produced through technology transfer or imitation of the industry. Therefore, the product types are concentrated and the market competition is fierce; Although a few enterprises have the ability of self-development, due to the long cycle of opening the market, plus the difficulties in the above aspects, and once a certain market scale is formed, other factories can easily copy and enter the market, which seriously affects the enthusiasm of enterprises to develop products by themselves. There is little difference in product quality. For nameless brand products, in order to improve the processing and product quality of enterprises, many manufacturers have introduced high-precision sheet metal processing equipment, but they are relatively backward in assembly technology, bus processing technology and equipment. All enterprises are at the same level. At present, several domestic best-selling products include professional profile manufacturers, auxiliary parts manufacturers, shell manufacturers, etc, In order to shorten the production cycle and meet the needs of diversified markets, many enterprises directly purchase shells for assembly. In this way, even with high-precision sheet metal processing equipment, it is difficult to give full play to their advantages. In this case, it is difficult to produce high-quality brand-name products

accessories used in low-voltage switchgear: such accessories mainly refer to primary and secondary connectors, wiring terminals, etc. At present, there is also a big gap between China and foreign countries in terms of primary and secondary connectors and wiring terminals. In terms of components, the level and quality of domestic components are uneven, and fake and shoddy products flood the market, which is also an important reason affecting the quality of low-voltage switchgear in China

it is difficult to promote new products and break through industry bottlenecks

the current low-voltage market is very difficult to do. I have participated in the research and development of several new products of low-voltage electrical appliances, but after the research and development, I just can't promote them. The manufacturers clearly know that the product I developed is a good thing, but no one will accept the offer. Therefore, a problem existing in the low-voltage electrical appliance industry is that the enterprise itself is unable to develop, and after our R & D personnel develop it, there are great problems in promotion. Experts in the low-voltage electrical appliance industry said in the interview

with good technology, good products and a large market, why has promotion become the biggest obstacle

I learned in the interview that it is difficult to promote new products. First of all, the promotion needs investment. The technicians have developed it, but the factory is not willing to pay back; Secondly, now many enterprises only take care of immediate interests. Although many enterprises have money, they have never developed products and are all imitations of others; Third, in the low-voltage electrical appliance industry, many enterprises are first assembled, and then OEM after assembly

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